Literature Review

Active Minds (2020) COVID-19 impact on college student mental health. Retrieved from

Barr V, Krylowicz B, Reetz D, Mistler BJ, Rando R. (2011). Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors Annual Survey 2011. Retrieved from

Frederick Community College (2017). Behavioral Evaluation and Response Team Policy and Procedures. Retrieved from

Conrad R, Rayala H, Menon M, Vora K. (2020) Universities’ Response to Supporting Mental Health of College Students During the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved from

Considerations for Integration of Counseling and Health Services on College and University Campuses. (2010). Journal of American College Health, 58(6), 583– 596.

Cornell, D. (2010). Threat assessment in college settings. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 42(1), 8-15.

Crozier, S., & Willihnganz, N. (2006). Canadian counselling centre survey 2004/2005. Retrieved from

De Somma, E., Jaworska, N., Heck, E., & MacQueen, G. M. (2017). Campus mental health policies across Canadian regions: Need for a national comprehensive strategy. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 58(2), 161–167.

Gallagher, R. P. (2007). National survey of counseling center directors 2006.

Gallagher, R. P. (2010). 2010 National survey of counseling center directors [Supplemental material]. Alexandria, VA: International Association of Counseling Services. Retrieved from

Golston, A. C. (2015). A descriptive study of the formation and structure of behavioral intervention teams at colleges and universities. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Grubic, N., Badovinac, S., & Johri, A. M. (2020). Student mental health in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for further research and immediate solutions. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(5), 517–518. https://doi. org/10.1177/0020764020925108

Jaworska N, DeSomma E, Dhoopar AS, et al. A survey of mental health services at post-secondary institutions in Alberta. Can J Psychiatry. 2014 May;59(5):250-8.

Jed Foundation. (2006). Framework for developing institutional protocols for the acutely distressed or suicidal college student. New York, NY: The Jed Foundation.

Jed Foundation. (2013). Balancing safety and support on campus: A guide for campus teams. New York: Author. Retrieved from

Kazerooni, A. R., Amini, M., Tabari, P., & Moosavi, M. (2020). Peer mentoring for medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic via a social media platform. Medical Education, 54(8), 762–763.

Lamberg, L. (2006). Experts work to prevent college suicides. JAMA, 296(5), 502-504.

Liu, C. H., Pinder-Amaker, S., Hahm, H. “Chris,” & Chen, J. A. (2020). Priorities for addressing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on college student mental health. Journal of American College Health, 0(0), 1–3.

Liu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, C., Xiang, Y. T., Liu, Z., Hu, S., & Zhang, B. (2020). Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), e17-e18.

Mardis, J. M., Sullivan, D. J., & Gamm, C. (2013). Behavioral intervention teams and threatassessment teams in higher education: Results from an exploratory study. Journal of The Association of Student Conduct Administrators, 5, 1-30.

Margolis, G. J., & Shtull, P. R. (2012). The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 26(4), 307–321.

Mitchell, S. L., Kader, M., Haggerty, M. Z., Bakhai, Y. D., & Warren, C. G. (2013). College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program. Journal of College Counseling, 16(1), 49– 63.

New Data on the Nature of Suicidal Crises in College Students: Shifting the Paradigm. (2009). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(3), 213–222.

Ontario University College Health Association. (2009). Towards a comprehensive mental health strategy: The crucial role of colleges and universities as partners. Retrieved from

Pinder-Amaker, S., & Bell, C. (2012). A Bioecological Systems Approach for Navigating the College Mental Health Crisis. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 20(4), 174– 188.

Porter, S. (2018). A Descriptive Study of Post- Secondary Student Mental Health Crises. College Quarterly, 21(3).

Redden, E. (2020). Pandemic Hurts Student Mental Health. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from [Ref list]

Rockland-Miller, H. S., & Eells, G. T. (2008). Strategies for Effective Psychiatric Hospitalization of College and University Students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 22(3), 3–12.

Seidel, E. J., Mohlman, J., Basch, C. H., Fera, J., Cosgrove, A., & Ethan, D. (2020). Communicating Mental Health Support to College Students During COVID-19: An Exploration of Website Messaging. Journal of Community Health, 1–4. 020-00905-w

Self, S. J. (2017). Behavioral intervention teams: An exploration of team member perceptions at Oklahoma regional universities.

Sokolow, B., Lewis, S., Van Brunt, B., Schuster, S., and Swinton, D. (2014). Book on BIT. A publication of the National Behavioral Intervention Team Association (

Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e21279.

Tucker, C., Sloan, S. K., Vance, M., & Brownson, C. (2008). Integrated care in college health: A case study. Journal of College Counseling, 11(2), 173–183.

Van Brunt, B., Sokolow, B., Lewis, S., & Schuster, S. (2012). NaBITA Survey. Retrieved from

Washburn, C. A., & Mandrusiak, M. (2010). Campus Suicide Prevention and Intervention: Putting Best Practice Policy into Action. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 40(1), 101–119.


American College Health Association. (n.d.). American College Health Association National College Health Assessment – Canadian Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2019 (Rep.). Retrieved

Arvidsdotter, T., Marklund, B., Kylen, S., Taft, C., & Ekman, I. (2016). Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Studies, 30, 687-694.

Chan, W., & Chunn, D. E. (2014). Racialization, crime and criminal justice in Canada. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

Gillis, W. (2015). Mother remembers Ian Pryce, shot by police in 2013 with a pellet gun in his hand. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from

Maynard, R. (2017). Policing Black lives: State violence in Canada from slavery to the present.

National Alliance on Mental Illness (n.d.). Navigating a mental health crisis. Retrieved from

Public Safety Canada. (2012). A Statistical Snapshot of Youth at Risk and Youth Offending in Canada (Rep.). Retrieved from

Porter, S. (2018). A Descriptive Study of Post-Secondary Student Mental Health Crises. College Quarterly, 21(3).

Sapers, H. (2015). Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator. Rep. No. 42

Schwartz, V. (2017). Suicide Among College Students: Risk and Approaches to Prevention and Management. Psychiatric Annals. 47(8), 406-411.

University of Alberta Suicide Prevention Framework. University of Alberta, Office of the Dean of Students. 2018. PDF.

White Bird Clinic. (2020). What is cahoots? Retrieved from

Wolitzky-Taylor, K. et al. (2018). Suicide prevention on college campuses: What works and what are the existing gaps? A systematic review and analysis. Journal of American College Health. 68 (4), 419-429.

York Support Services Network. (2022). What is a mental health crisis? Retrieved from,function%20in%20a%20healthy%20manner.

Guide: PDF Version