Appendix B

Other Resources

A framework for enhancing multicultural counselling competence

Canadian counsellors are increasingly called upon to work with diverse client populations whose needs may not be met through traditional counselling models. The question for many is how to development the attitudes, knowledge, and skills for competent and ethical practice. This article introduces core competencies designed to assist counsellors to effectively infuse culture into all aspects of the counselling process. It then describes how these competencies are combined to enhance the multicultural competence of counsellors. Practical strategies are then introduced to provide a starting place for counsellors who identify the need for further professional development to increase their multicultural competence. (Paper: Sandra Collins, Athabasca University, Nancy Arthur, University of Calgary, 2007).

View Framework

International Student Mental Health Support Toolkit for Program Planning

A toolkit designed to provide some considerations to assist in developing initiatives and supports to promote the mental health of international students. (Toolkit: Ryerson University, University of Toronto, and OCAD University, 2015)

View Toolkit

Going Global: Supporting Ontario’s International Students

The Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance (OUSA) recognizes the importance of attracting more international students to study in Ontario, as articulated by the Ontario government in its Open Ontario Plan. In a competitive global environment, international students enable the province to train and retain highly skilled individuals, provide access to a greater pool of talent, diversity and ideas, and contribute to the economy.

This paper provides an overview of six areas of significant importance to undergraduate domestic and international students alike, all of which are in need of greater attention by institutions and the provincial government. (Paper: Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, 2011)

View Going Global PDF

International Education in Ontario

This paper examines the policies surrounding international students and international education from the perspective of college students in Ontario. The goal of this paper is to inform the discussion on the federal, provincial, and institutional policies surrounding international students as they pursue Ontario credentials and international education in general. International student currently represent about 10% of the overall college population. Their experiences are different from typical college students’, in part because international students undergo a different process of applying to an Ontario college. Furthermore, these students typically come from cultures that are different than that of Ontario, and may have difficulties in adapting to the way of life and the stresses associated with being an international student. It is important to make sure there are supports in place to address the differing needs these students have as they study in Ontario. (Policy Paper: College Student Alliance, 2013).

View Policy Paper (PDF)

Supporting International Students

Many international students do not readily seek mental health supports, despite facing multiple challenges in their transition to a new country and educational system. This webinar will look at some of the barriers to access, including stigma of mental health issues, differing cultural perceptions of the definitions, causes, and handling of mental health, and a lack of awareness of supports offered on and off campus. We will discuss ways to overcome these barriers while taking into account the cross-campus collaborations needed to enhance support for international students. (Webinar: Centre for Innovation in Campus Mental Health, 2018).

View Webinar

Immigrant and Refugee Mental Health Project Toolkit

The Refugee Mental Health Toolkit, is a part of the E-learning tools and Community of Practice for Refugee Mental Health project funded by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. The toolkit is planned to be a repository of resources compiled to support service providers to appropriately respond to the mental health needs of refugees. It is meant to be an online resource providing information, ideas, tools and materials needed to be used by settlement counselors and health care providers, with clients to develop newcomer awareness of mental health issues, reduce stigma and encourage help-seeking. (Toolkit: Portico, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health).

View Project Toolkit

Tailoring University Counselling Services to Aboriginal and International Students

Lessons from Native and International Student Centres at a Canadian University: This paper reviews experiences from a doctoral-level practicum in counselling psychology that targeted aboriginal and international university students outside of the mainstream counselling services at a western Canadian university over a two-year period. It recommends an integrated approach, combining assessment, learning strategy skills, and counselling skills while incorporating community development methodology. The paper concludes with recommendations for counsellor training that will enhance services to both international and aboriginal students (Paper: Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson, Athabasca University, Kathryn Holleran, Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, Marilyn Samuels, University of Calgary, 2015).

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Dibaadan Project

Provides specialized outreach, prevention, and intervention from an Indigenous wellness perspective. This includes events and activities to learn more about caring for your wellbeing. Any student may access these services: status, non-status, non-Indigenous. (Report: Student Counselling Services, Nipissing University, 2017).

View Report

Journeying Towards Holistic Wellness, A Resource for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Students

A handbook meant to increase understanding of the experiences of First Nations, Métis and Inuit students. Addresses gaps in mental health services for post-secondary First Nations, Métis and Inuit learners in Ontario. (Student Handbook: University of Guelph, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic).

View Student Handbook

Niagara Holistic Wellness Initiative

Built upon an Indigenous understanding of wellness, which views mental health from a holistic perspective, the Niagara Postsecondary Holistic Wellness Initiative by Brock University and partner Niagara College developed an easily accessible, user-friendly online information portal and face-to-face programs to respond to the diverse mental health needs in Niagara. (Website: Brock University, Niagara College, 2013).

Visit Niagara Holistic Wellness Portal

Sault College Mental Health Hub

The Mental Health Hub was developed as a model for Northern Colleges to ensure their students have access to mental health services that address prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and crisis service needs that are unavailable in the community due to low available resources. As the Northern colleges have high percentages of students who are Indigenous, this includes culturally appropriate services such as an Elder-in-Residence program, and alternative methods of treatment such as ceremonies, sweats, and art programming.

Visit Mental Health Hub

Aboriginal Postsecondary Education and Training Policy Framework

This policy framework will provide the impetus and structure for implementing a renewed approach to postsecondary education and training with effective measures for change. Together with the First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework, it establishes the foundations of the government’s Aboriginal Education Strategy. (Framework: Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Ontario Public Service, 2011).

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KAIROS Blanket Exercise

A unique, participatory history lesson – developed in collaboration with Indigenous Elders, knowledge keepers and educators – that fosters truth, understanding, respect and reconciliation among Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. (Exercise: KAIROS Canada).

View KAIROS Blanket Exercise program

Future Further, the Ontario Universities’ Indigenous Student Resource Portal

A dedicated resource that provides information on supports and services for Indigenous students interested in, or already attending, an Ontario university. Available on this website is information on universities in Ontario, resources for indigenous students, FAQs, and information on the Aboriginal Post-Secondary Information Program. (Website: Future Further).

View Future Further Website

Tailoring University Counselling Services to Aboriginal and International Students: Lessons from Native and International Student Centres at a Canadian University

Reviews experiences from a doctoral-level practicum in counselling psychology that targeted aboriginal and international university students outside of the mainstream counselling services at a western Canadian university over a two- year period. It recommends an integrated approach, combining assessment, learning strategy skills, and counselling skills while incorporating community development methodology. The paper concludes with recommendations for counsellor training that will enhance services to both international and aboriginal students. (Paper: Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson, Athabasca University; Kathryn Holleran, Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board; Marilyn Samuels, University of Calgary; 2015).

View Paper

Community Listening Circles Toolkit

The Art Hives Network invites people in communities across Canada to come together to form small listening circles, sitting in a circle and listening to each other, and reflecting critically on personal and collective choices and experiences. Adding spontaneous and informal art-making about a topic that may be uncomfortable, uncertain and unclear helps to maintain an empathetic space. Community listening circles can generate the necessary dialogue to uncover and examine how our personal and collective story intersects with colonialism, and how we may reproduce it in our lives and cause harm to Indigenous peoples. (Toolkit: Art Hives Network, Concordia University, 2018).

View Toolkit

A Review of Aboriginal Education Councils in Ontario

Since the launch of the Province of Ontario’s Aboriginal Education and Training Strategy in 1992, institutions have established Aboriginal Education Councils (AECs) in order both to access targeted ministry funding for Indigenous education and to facilitate discussion and collaboration among Indigenous community members and senior institutional representatives. AECs currently take a broad range of forms, varying by size, membership, mandate, and outcomes. The goal of this research project was to document these differences, and to highlight promising practices that can be shared among AECs across the province and guide practice and policy development. (Review: Academica Group Inc., 2016)

View Academica Group Report

School Counsellors Tool Kit: Talking to Your Students About Dating & Healthy Relationships

Indigenous people are more likely than non-Indigenous people to report having experienced sexual or physical violence by a spouse. This report discusses ways to talk to students about healthy relationships. (Toolkit: Ontario Native Education Counselling Association (ONECA), 2018).

View School Counsellors Tool Kit

Pulling Together: A Guide for Indigenization of Post-Secondary Education Institutions

A guide/professional learning series for the Indigenization of post-secondary institutions. These guides are intended to be living resources that augment existing training currently offered through the institutions, recognizing that place-based Indigenous knowledge, languages, and practices are reflected in the localized delivery of Indigenized learning resources. (Professional Learning Series: Kory Wilson, Indigenization Project, BCcampus, 2018).

View Professional Learning Series

Addressing the Healing of Aboriginal Adults and Families within a Community-owned College Model

This paper discusses residential schools, strategies for addressing the effects of trauma on learning, addressing healing through programming and curriculum, and using academic programs as healing resources. It includes a case study of the Blue Quills First Nations. (Paper: William Aguiar, Regine Halseth, National Collaborating Centres for Public Health, 2015).

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Dr. Susan Dion: First Nation, Métis, and Inuit-focused Collaborative Inquiry and Community Involvement

Susan Dion discusses her study of collaborative inquiry involving educators working with community partners to meet the needs of Indigenous students. The study clearly revealed the importance of involving community members as partners throughout the inquiry process. This cultivated a deeper reciprocal understanding between educators and community members. Educators gained greater knowledge about the histories, cultures and perspectives of their local First Nation, Métis, and Inuit communities. The collaboration enables all participants to play a greater role in identifying student learning needs and to bring about positive change. (Video Discussion: Dr. Susan Dion, York University, 2016).

View Video Discussion

Understanding Mental Health and Wellbeing Among Aboriginal Post-Secondary Students

This study aimed to understand mental health from an Aboriginal worldview as well as Aboriginal post-secondary students’ preferences for receiving mental health information in order to effectively translate culturally appropriate mental health information to Aboriginal students. Using primarily qualitative methods, the study sought to develop, implement and evaluate a knowledge translation strategy for Aboriginal post- secondary students to increase their mental health knowledge and coping resources, which in turn, could aid in their successful completion of postsecondary education and improve their ability to move their communities forward. (Dissertation: Caitlin Joy Davey, Ryerson University, 2015).

View Dissertation

Education as a Social Determinant of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health

Examines some of the key factors contributing to or hindering academic success for Indigenous peoples in Canada, including historic and contemporary impacts of colonialism, socio-economic marginalization, educational funding inequities, and personal reasons. While current trends and levels of educational attainment are on the rise, there are multiple ways for improving Indigenous learning. Specifically, decolonizing approaches like land, language, culture, and Indigenous knowledge-based pedagogies and curriculum are addressed. The fact sheet concludes by highlighting some promising practices in advancing education among Indigenous peoples, from early learning and care initiatives to post-secondary studies. (Fact Sheet: National Collaborating Centres for Public Health, 2017).

View Fact Sheet

Urban Aboriginal Peoples Study

Discusses urban Indigenous identity, culture, experiences, political identity and engagement, justice, happiness, scholarly achievement, and educational values, aspirations and experiences. (Review: Environics Institute, 2010).

View Environics Institute Report

Aboriginal Youth: A Manual of Promising Suicide Prevention Strategies

This manual starts with a review of the literature of Aboriginal suicide prevention literature and provides some useful statistics and background information that may prove valuable to individuals who which to write a proposal to obtain funding for their prevention program. Some of the main preventative factors are discussed as well as other useful sections that will tell you how you will know when you are making a difference. Practical information such as program contact names and contact information is also provided.

Successful projects are divided into categories such as community development, peer helpers, gatekeepers, self esteem building, family and youth support. (Manual: Jennifer White, Nadine Jodoin, Centre for Suicide Prevention, CMHA Alberta, 2003, Revised 2004)

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Maintaining Balance: Staying Connected to Land, Culture & Language

List of activities created in an effort to offer ways to keep Indigenous youth in touch with their home territory, identity and cultural heritage. Keeping Indigenous youth grounded to their home territory helps to keep family and close connections, familiar relationships and supports from home close to heart. Traditional activities and learning on the land helps to keep youth focussed on their work and goals while at school. Keeping Indigenous youth grounded in who they are, helps to instill pride and confidence, respect and responsibility to themselves, their families and community. (Activity Guide: Ontario Native Education Counselling Association (ONECA), 2018).

View Activity Guide

National Aboriginal Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NAYSPS) Program Framework

Discusses Indigenous youth suicide prevention strategies in Canada.(Framework: Health Canada, 2013).

View Program Framework

Suicide Among Aboriginal People in Canada

This document discusses the epidemiology of suicide among Indigenous populations, the origins of suicide (individual vulnerability, resilience, and social suffering) and best practices in suicide prevention. It also recommends suicide prevention training programs and toolkits. (Paper: Laurence J. Kirmayer, Gregory M. Brass, Tara Holton, Ken Paul, Cori Simpson, Caroline Tait, Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2007).

View Paper

Indigenous Well-being in Schools: Web-based Resource Guide

Created as a companion document to Indigenous Well-Being in Schools: Understanding, Promoting and Supporting Indigenous Learners, Final Report (ONECA. 2018). Resources in this guide cover identify and worldview, cultural competency, health and well-being, education, funding Indigenous wellness, and more. (Resource Guide: Ontario Native Education Counselling Association (ONECA), 2018).

View Resource Guide

A Framework for Indigenous School Health: Foundations in Cultural Principles

The purpose of this project was to establish a format through which a dialogue circle approach could be initiated, and a co-constructive process could be established that was inclusive of Indigenous voices international and which would result in the design of a common framework for school health programming for Indigenous schools and communities. (Framework: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health (NCCAH), 2010).

View Framework

Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres Aboriginal Mental Health Strategy

Discusses current trends in Indigenous mental health, a cultural framework, current issues and needs, the current response, and desires for the future. (Strategy: Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres, 2013).

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Navigating Two Worlds: Experiences of Counsellors Who Integrate Aboriginal Traditional Healing Practices

The use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities has experienced a revival, and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating Indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present study aimed to address this limitation. (Paper: Olga Oulanova, Roy Moodley, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, 2010).

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Healing traditions: culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples

Reviews recent literature examining the links between the history of colonialism and government interventions (including the residential school system, out-adoption, and centralised bureaucratic control) and the mental health of Canadian Aboriginal peoples. (Literature Review: Laurence Kirmayer, McGill University; Cori Simpson, Jewish General Hospital; Margaret Cargo, Université de Montréal; 2003)

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Promoting Indigenous mental health: Cultural perspectives on healing from Native counsellors in Canada

This paper will present the findings from a qualitative study exploring the narratives of Indigenous counsellors in Native community. (Paper: Suzanne L. Stewart, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto, 2008).

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Considerations for Indigenous child and youth population mental health promotion in Canada

This paper aims to improve understandings of Indigenous mental health in Canada, and demonstrate how particular determinants either contribute to increased risk for mental illness or act as protective factors for positive mental health. (Paper: National Collaborating Centres for Public Health, 2017).

View the Public Health Paper

Indigenous Education Protocol

This important document underscores the importance of structures and approaches required to address Indigenous peoples’ learning needs and support self- determination and socio-economic development of Indigenous communities. (Protocol: Colleges and Institutes Canada).

View the Framework/Protocol

Universities Canada Principles on Indigenous Education

In the spirit of advancing opportunities for Indigenous students, the leaders of Canada’s universities commit to the following principles, developed in close consultation with Indigenous communities. These principles acknowledge the unique needs of Indigenous communities across Canada and their goals of autonomy and self- determination, as well as differences in jurisdiction among provinces and territories, institutional mission among universities, and the authority of appropriate university governance bodies in academic decision-making. (Framework/Protocol: Universities Canada).

View the Framework/Protocol

First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Students in Ontario’s Post-Secondary Education System

In the Province of Ontario’s pursuit of a 70% post‐secondary education (PSE) attainment rate, First Nation, Métis, and Inuit people must be a primary consideration to ensure that the province meets its targeted goals. First Nations, Métis, and Inuit (FNMI) peoples are the youngest and fastest‐growing demographic in Canada, yet they face a variety of barriers that hinder their educational success. These barriers include, but are not limited to, financial, institutional, historical, geographical, educational, and personal barriers, many of which often intersect. To tackle these barriers, there needs to be a coordinated and holistic approach to resolve the issues that students encounter as they pursue higher education. (Policy Paper: College Student Alliance, 2012).

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LGBTQ+ Students Policy Paper

On university campuses across Ontario, students who are LGBTQ+ face varying levels of discrimination, exclusion, and increased health and safety risks. This policy paper was developed by the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance (OUSA) to explore possible policy interventions. In the fall of 2014, OUSA began an extensive research and consultation process to assemble a wealth of information about the experiences, opinions, and satisfaction levels among university students who identify as LGBTQ+ in Ontario. Guided by these student voices, and informed by best practices highlighted in existing literature, this paper offers recommendations to improve equity, safety, and inclusion. Though deep-seated structural factors are the root causes of discrimination and prejudice, it is not in the scope of this paper to offer an academic exploration of these topics. Rather, this paper maintains a problem-solving focus, connected closely to primary research, and offers short-term prescriptions intended to improve the student experiences for LGBTQ+ students. (Policy Paper: Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, 2015).

View LGBTQ+ Students Policy Paper

Providing mental health services for LGBTQ+ students on campus:

An interview with Kathryn Dance, Acting Director of Psychological Services, Student Experience at Western University, and with Chérie Moody, Psychology Resident at Psychological Services, regarding their approach to providing mental health services for LGBTQ+ students on campus. (Interview: Kathryn Dance, Chérie Moody, Western University, Centre for Innovation in Campus Mental Health, 2018).

View CICMH Spotlight Interview

LGBTQ2 Health Policy: Addressing the Needs of LGBTQ2 Post-Secondary Students

This brief focuses on LGBTQ2 post-secondary students and ensuring their needs are addressed in LGBTQ2 health policy. Drawing on research conducted with LGBTQ2 students in Canada and the United States, we describe some of the challenges that LGBTQ2 postsecondary students face, including mental health challenges. Based on our research, other literature, and our collective experience, we offer recommendations to inform the development of federal policies and initiatives that will promote the acceptance, belonging, and wellbeing of LGBTQ2 post-secondary students throughout the country. (Policy Brief: Canadian Centre for Gender and Sexual Diversity, 2019).

View LGBTQ2 Health Policy

LGBTQ+ Student Experience Survey Report: LGBTQ+ students’ experiences and attitudes at universities

OUSA’s LGBTQ+ Student Experience Survey was a mixed methods research project conducted in November 2014 designed to gain understanding of the opinions and experiences of Ontario university students who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Questioning, or other orientations or identities that do not conform to cisgender and heterosexual paradigms (LGBTQ+). The purpose of the survey was to identify any gaps that might exist in university services, programming, and supports that can diminish or negatively impact university experiences for these students. (Paper: Ontario Undergraduate Student

View Survey Report

Campus Tool-Kit for Combatting Racism

The pandemic of racism is widespread across North American campuses and communities. With the rise of white supremacist groups, racist social conservative policies, and the trend of these governments targeting student groups on campus, working together on anti-racism activism has never been more needed. (Toolkit: Canadian Federation of Students).

View Toolkit

Standing Strong Task Force Recommendations

The Task Force was mandated to develop principles to guide commemoration at Ryerson university and to respond to the history and legacy of Egerton Ryerson within the context of the university’s values. At the conclusion of their work, this document represents their recommendations to the university.

View Recommendations

Guide: PDF Version