Models & Frameworks

Ontario’s college and university counsellors are seeing an ever-increasing number of students with complex mental health needs. This increase in both the volume and complexity of students with mental health issues has led campuses to identify and implement several promising mental health service models to enhance support for these students.

Similarly, several systemic models have been developed to help promote and enhance student and campus mental health at the broader campus-wide level.

The purpose of this section is to widely share these promising models and frameworks; and provide tools to help campuses identify which models or components of models will best meet their campus’ unique needs. Given the differences between campuses, no single model or framework will work well for all colleges and universities.

Explore promising models and frameworks below!


CACUSS Systematic Approach
NASPA Ecological Approach
Healthy Universities / Campuses Approach


Case Management Model
Stepped Care Model
Triage Model

Did You Know?

Students with complex mental health needs are less likely to drop out of school and more likely to do well in school if they are connected to appropriate services and supports.